Combine peppercorns, coriander, mustard, fennel and cumin in a mortar and pestle; crush until fragrant and just broken.
Bring water to a boil in a saucepan. Add peppercorn-seed mixture, onion, garlic, ginger, rosemary, thyme, and bay leaves; bring back to a boil. Reduce heat to low; simmer until flavours develop, about 25 minutes. Cool brine, about 10 minutes.
Pour 2 cups brine into a large 10-litre plastic container with a tight-fitting lid. Stir in sugar and salt until dissolved. Add chicken wings, lemon zest and juice, and lime zest and juice.
Drop ice into the pot with the remaining brine to cool it down. Pour into the plastic container. Add enough apple juice to cover the wings. Stir well and seal container; refrigerate for 24 to 48 hours.
Preheat smoker to 135 to 150 degrees C according to manufacturer's directions.
Rinse wings under cold tap water; dry, unstacked, on wire racks. Place the racks into the smoker. Add applewood chips according to manufacturer's directions. Smoke until chicken develops a smoky flavour but is not fully cooked, about 25 minutes. Transfer wings to a tray and pat dry with paper towels.
Heat oil in a deep-fryer or large saucepan to 175 degrees C. Fry wings, 8 to 10 at a time, until golden brown and crispy, about 60 to 90 seconds.
Do not use mesquite to smoke as it's too pungent and will get bitter in this application.
Nutrition data for this recipe includes the full amount of brine ingredients. The actual amount of brine consumed will vary.